What are different classification of law ?

What are different classification of law ?

Classification of law

The law can be classified and sub-classified in various forms. With time, different laws have been made to set new problems. The following are the classifications of law :

1. Civil and Criminal law 

Civil law is a part of private law that defines the rights, duties, and obligations of people. Its aim is to guarantee the rights and duties of individuals. Violation of civil laws affects an individual's rights and duties. 

The person who violates civil law is subject to civil liabilities like compensation and fines etc. Civil cases are decided in civil court law. 

If someone violates the rights of other people then courts make wrongdoers to compensate the victims. Civil law includes family law, labor law, tort law and business law.

Criminal is part of public law which deals with crime, and offenses and determines punishment. Its aim is to prevent crime and criminal activities in society and maintain law and order in the society. In a civilized society, crime is considered as wrong to the whole society that’s why it is called a branch of public law. 

The person who violates criminal law subject to punishment like sentencing to jail, the death penalty, etc. Criminal cases are decided in the criminal court of law.

2. Substantive and Procedural law

Substantive law is a body of law that deals with the rights, duties, and obligations of people. So It is also called the law of rights. It deals with matters inside the court. Substantive law already exists in the state after making an act, rules, and regulations. 

Substantive law defines what will happen when someone violates substantive law. It regulates the conduct and relations of the parties in respect of the matters being litigated. 

Procedural law is a body of law that deals with the procedure to be followed if someone’s rights or duties are violated. It deals with matters outside of court. Procedural law exists when the substantive law is violated. 

It deals with evidence and procedure and action of the court when substantive law is violated. It regulates the conduct and relations of court and litigants in respect of litigation.

3. Municipal law and International law

Municipal law is a body of law applicable within a state. It means any law that is applied internally within a nation. It regulates the relations of individual to individuals and individuals to state. It includes the Constitution, codes, statutes, and precedents. It is made for maintaining good relations and harmony between the citizens of the country. 

International law can be defined as a body of rules recognized by two or more nations as binding upon one another. International law is a law that is binding over all countries of the world. 

International law and rules are recognized by many countries to be bound by them.  International conventions and treaties are some examples of international law.

4. Private and Public law 

Private law is a body of law that regulates some conduct of individuals who are not directly concerned with the state. The law which deals with individuals and their relations only is called private law. 

It deals with individuals to individuals only, not to the state. Family law, the law of torture, and Conventional law are examples of private law. 

The law which deals with the structure and function of government is called public law. It deals with the relation between individuals to individuals and individuals to state. 

Breach of public law is considered a crime. Constitutional law, administrative law, and Criminal law are examples of public law.

5. National and Foreign law

The law of a particular nation is called national law. It is also called domestic law. It is binding in nature. The laws of Nepal are examples of national law for us.

The law of the foreign country is called foreign law. It is historical in nature. The laws of India, Japan, and China are examples of foreign law for Nepal.

Read this also: What are different kinds of law?

Anish Kumar Tiwari

I am Anish Kumar Tiwari, founder of this blog. I can write very well on any topics and I like to share information on different topics through my blog. Thank you for visiting my blog.

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post