What are different classification of law ?

Classification of law

Law can be classified and sub classified in various forms. With the passes of time , different law has been made for setting new problems. The following are the classifications of law :

1. Civil and Criminal law 

Civil law is a part of private law which defines the rights, duties and obligations of people. It's aim is to guarantee the rights and duties of individuals. Violation of civil laws affect individuals rights and duties. 

The person who violates civil law subject to civil liabilities like compensation and fine etc. Civil cases decided in civil court  law. 

If someone violates the rights of others people then courts made wrong doer to compensate the victims. Civil law includes family law , labor law, tort law and business law.

Criminal is the part of public law which deals with crime, offences and determines punishment. It’s aim is to prevent crime and criminal activities in the society and maintain law and order in the society. In civilized society, crime is considered as wrong to whole society that’s why it is called a branch of public law. 

The person who violates criminal law subject to punishment like sentencing jail, death penalty etc. Criminal cases decided in the criminal court of law.

2. Substantive and Procedural law

Substantive law is a body of law which deals with rights, duties and obligations of people. So It is also called law of rights. It deals with matters inside the court. Substantive law already exist in the state after making an act, rules and regulations. 

Substantive law defines what will be happen when someone violated substantive law. It regulates the conducts and relations of the parties in respect of the matters being litigated. 

Procedural law is a body of law which deals with the procedure to be followed if someone’s right or duties violated. It deals with matters outside of court. Procedural law exist when the substantive law violated. 

It deals with evidence and procedure and action of the court when substantive law violated. It regulates the conducts and relations of court and litigants in respect of litigation.

3. Municipal law and International law

Municipal law is a body of law applicable within a state. It means any law which is applied internally within a nation. It regulates the relations of individual to individuals and individuals to state. It includes constitution, codes , statutes and precedent. It is made for maintaining good relation and harmony between the citizen of country. 

International law can be defined as a body of rules recognized by two or more nations as binding upon one another. International law is a law which is binding over all country of the world. 

International law and rules are recognized by many country to be bound with them.  International convention and treaties are some examples of international law.

4. Private and Public law 

Private law is a body of law which regulates some conduct of individuals which are not directly concerned with state. The law which deals with individuals and their relation only is called private law. 

It deals with individuals to individuals only, not to the state. Family law , law of torture and Conventional law are examples of private law. 

The law which deals with the structure and function of government is called public law. It deals the relation between individuals to individuals and individuals to state. 

Breach of public law is considered as crime. Constitutional law, administrative law and Criminal law are examples of public law.

5. National and Foreign law

The law of a particular nation is called national law. It is also called domestic law. It is binding in nature. The laws of Nepal are examples of national law for us.

The law of foreign country is called foreign law. It is historical in nature. The laws of India , Japan and China are examples of foreign law for Nepal.

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